Robert Clifford
born about 1843 England - died 16 January 1906 Dunedin, New Zealand

Robert Clifford by Clifford & Co., Dunedin

Robert Clifford born circa 1843 England youngest son of Margaret and George Clifford [shipwright], London, arrived New Zealand before December 1869, died 16 January 1906 Dunedin aged 63 years, buried 18 January 1906, Southern Cemetery, Dunedin, block 21, plot 9.

Married 1stly 31 May 1871, reg. 1871/6228, Jane Malcolm born circa 1850, only daughter of the late John Malcolm, Canterbury, died at her home in Fernhill Street, Dunedin in 1888 aged 38 years, buried Southern Cemetery, Dunedin, block 21, plot 9.

On the 31st of May, at [Wesleyan] Trinity Church, by the Rev. A. Reid, Robert, youngest son of Mr. George Clifford, London, to Janet, only daughter of the late Mr. John Malcolm of Canterbury.
Evening Star, Volume IX, Issue 2586, 1 June 1871

issue with Janet Malcolm:
1. Henry Herbert Clifford [photographer] born 1 May 1872 Dunedin, reg. 1872/35824, died
19 February 1949 aged 76 years, reg, 1949/18041, buried Bromley Cemetery, Christchurch, block 17, plot 343, married 24 July 1915, reg. 1915/4265 Annette Mary Eleanor Jane Thomas, born 5 November 1881, reg. 1881/13028, died 28 April 1968 aged 86 years, reg. 1968/30602, buried Bromley Cemetery, Christchurch, block 17, plot 343, daughter of John Woodill Thomas and Elizabeth Bates.
1a. Robert Henry Clifford, service number 391341 Royal New Zealand Air Force, born 14 April 1916, reg. 1916/4062, died 23 August 1940 from injuries at Oxford, England aged 24 years, death registered NZ reg. 1945/15784, buried Harwell Cemetery, Berkshire, grave 609
1b. Garth Ogilvie Clifford [solicitor] born 27 July 1917, reg. 1917/4193, died 27 January 1981, Christchurch, reg. 1981/43827, married circa 1949 Mary Ida Cowlishaw   
1c. Alister Bertrum Clifford [or Allister Bertrum Clifford] born 30 December 1918, reg. 1919/5589, died 15 or 17 January 1940, reg. 1940/22757, [cemetery and death registration indicate date of death as 15 January, however newspaper death notice and headstone indicates 17 January], buried 19 January 1940 Bromley Cemetery, block 17, plot 343

2. Arthur Bertram Clifford born 12 July 1877, reg. 1877/8884, died 27 November 1911 at 3 Maitland Street, Dunedin aged 34 years, reg. 1911/8881, buried Southern Cemetery, block 2P, plot 110, married 20 December 1904, reg. 1904/4597 Agnes Hair Churchill, daughter of William Churchill and Ann Spiers Hair, born 24 September 1877 Dunedin, reg. 1877/9033, died 14 July 1963 Dunedin aged 85 years, reg. 1963/23779, buried Southern Cemetery, block 2P, plot 110

no issue found.

3. Eva Frances Clifford born 22 October 1879, reg. 1879/9049, died 9 October 1961 Dunedin Public Hospital, aged 82 years, reg. 1961/37742, married 29 November 1905, reg. 1905/4211, Percy Edward Wilson he died 10 August 1945 Dunedin aged 72 years, reg. 1945/24808, no issue found.

4. Robert Clifford born 5 March 1881, reg. 1881/5154, died 7 August 1908 at his residence, 33 Peter Street, Caversham, Dunedin after a long illness aged 27 years, reg. 1908/6782, buried Southern Cemetery, Dunedin, block 21, plot 9, married 28 November 1906, reg. 1906/4610, Jessie Fox born circa 1884, reg. 1884/15892, died 1 August 1959 Dunedin aged 75 years, reg. 1959/31138, daughter of Hugh Fox [quarryman] and Jane Bulloch, married 2ndly 1922, reg. 1922/8969 John George Stewart.
4a. Edith May Clifford "Maisie" born 4 April 1908, reg. 1908/11052, died 10 April 1984, reg. 1984/47215, married 4 December 1937, reg. 1937/14221 Leslie Whyte Edginton son of William Edginton and Annie Kennedy Whyte, children, Leslie Edginton and Patricia Edginton.

5. Spencer Clifford born 18 May 1883, reg. 1883/1064, died 7 January 1891 Dunedin Hospital, aged 7 years, 7 months, buried Southern Cemetery, block 21, plot 9, [the Dunedin City Council Cemetery database incorrectly shows block 121, plot 9].  

6. Kate Constance Clifford born 21 November 1887, reg. 1888/12681, died 19 August 1907 aged 19 years at her residence, 107 Union Street, Dunedin, reg. 1907/6750, buried Southern Cemetery, Dunedin, block 21, plot 9.

Married 2ndly 14 October 1889, in the Office of the Registrar of Marriages, Dunedin, reg. 1889/3375, witnessed by Hermann Bruhl [storeman] and Auguste Bruhl of Dunedin, Clara Gotte, born circa 1866, Paderborn, Prussia, daughter of Franz Gotte [accountant] and Johanna Schroder, [possibly same person as Clara Louise Goette born 5 April 1866, bapt 29 April 1866, Paderborn, Prussia, daughter of Franz Joseph Goette and Johanna Schroeder], died 29 May 1952, reg. 14184/1952 Randwick, New South Wales, Australia.
issue with Clara Gotte:

7. Hilda Clifford born 3 March 1890, reg. 1890/8258, died 17 November 1903 at her parents' residence, Eskvale Street, Musselburgh, Dunedin aged 13 years and 8 months, reg. 1903/8193,
buried Southern Cemetery, Dunedin, block 21, plot 9.

8. George Clifford born 10 October 1892, reg. 1892/13806, died 2 February 1893 aged 4 months, reg. 1893/1757, buried Southern Cemetery, Dunedin, block 21, plot 9.

9. Eugene Clifford born 19 July 1894, reg. 1894/11091, died 18 December 1917 Hamilton aged 24 years, reg. 1917/6634, buried Hamilton East Cemetery, married 17 February 1915, reg. 1915/8755 Blanche Elsie Iles born 27 March 1896, reg. 1896/16182, died 18 February 1976, reg. 1976/26172, daughter of Arthur James Iles [photographer] and Ripeka Rangimahora Parani Ututaonga ("Rangi") also known as Rebecca Elsie Utuatonga or Puckey, she married 2ndly 31 May 1923 Rotorua, reg. 1923/8647 Daniel Arthur Dinneen, born 7 November 1898, reg. 1898/11584, died 11 May 1988, reg. 1988/32395 [date of birth shown as 1 November 1988 at time of registration of death], son of Harriet Louise Shalders and John Dinneen
9a. Nola Clifford born 22 April 1915, reg, 1915/18707, died 15 November 1997, reg, 1997/45310, married 17 August 1935, reg. 1935/3580 George Pirrit Green [farmer], born 14 September 1915, reg. 1915/12170, son of Margaret Glen Pirrit and Edward Langley Green, died 27 May 1974 aged 56 years, reg. 1974/29135, buried Waikumete Cemetery, Auckland, Cremation Lawn Division B, row 1, plot 99, father of Rodger, Bruce and Bonnie.
9b. Elsie Constance Clifford born 15 June 1916, reg. 1916/18774, died 2 September 1931 aged 15 years, reg. 1931/7081 

10. Leopold Clifford [or Claude Leo Clifford / Claud Leo Clifford], born 23 September 1896 Dunedin, reg. 1896/5005, died 7 July 1970, New South Wales, Australia, buried Rookwood General Cemetery, NSW [1915 banana planter employed by R. Clifford, Rarotonga and later Clerk C.S.R. Company, Fiji], served in both WWI and WWII., Australia service number WWII - QX42652, married 1929 N.S.W., Wilga Eileen Stirling nee Leese [she was previously married to Sydney Coverdale Watson a well known actor under his stage name Sydney Stirling], born 1897, Sydney, New South Wales, daughter of Alfred Leese [photographer] and Eileen Marie Rowe [or Eileen Mercy Rowe], died December 1953 aged 53 years, then of 685 New South Head Road, Rose Bay, cremated. 

 Robert Clifford

Robert Clifford by Robert Clifford, Otago Portrait Gallery

 Robert Clifford
Clifford & Son (Dunedin): Portrait of Robert Clifford Esq. Ref: PA3-0039. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/22851892

from about 1869-1892


Otago Daily Times, Issue 2447, 9 December 1869

Photography. We have been shown some photographs of Home dramatic artists, beautifully colored by Messrs Clifford and Clifton. We confess to a long-felt weakness in favor of uncolored photographs, as much of the roundness and delicate halftone is usually destroyed by the application of color; but we most candidly avow that the photographs submitted to us are free from this common defect, and are decidedly improved by color. These pictures are on view at their studio, Fleet street, and are in every way worthy a visit.
Evening Star, Volume VIII, Issue 2097, 25 January 1870

In July 1871 Robert Clifford of Fleet Street, a member of the Loyal Alexandra Lodge of the Ancient Independent Order of Oddfellows, presented the Lodge with a frame containing photographs of the retiring officers.
Otago Witness, Issue 1025, 22 July 1871, Page 3

Otago Witness, Issue 1081, 17 August 1872, Page 13

Otago Daily Times, Issue 3591, 8 August 1873, Page 4

Photography is an art which has been very successfully prosecuted in Dunedin, as well as in other Australasian cities. We have frequently had occasion to notice the beautiful pictures produced in the studio of Messrs Burton Brothers, and we recently noticed the splendid photographic gallery fitted up for the proprietors of the London Rooms by Mr Reichelt.

We have now much pleasure in noticing that Messrs Clifford, Morris, and Co., of the Otago Portrait Gallery, are determined not to be outdone either in the fitting up of their studio, or in the style of executing their work. They have just erected, at no inconsiderable expense, a second studio, which is situated on the ground floor, and supplied with every requisite for the production of good pictures. A most important adjunct is a set of new patent instruments just received from Messrs J. H. Dalmeyer and Co., which enable them to overcome entirely the difficulty of lengthened exposure — a very great desideratum in photographing children and persons of a nervous temperament. Another improvement introduced is the Rembrandt process, by which the portraits are shaded in a very striking and peculiar manner.

Otago Daily Times, Issue 3593, 11 August 1873

We thank Messrs Clifford and Morris for their very admirable photographs of the Hon. S. D. Hastings [Samuel Dexter Hastings], received from them to-day. Whether considered as works of art or striking likenesses, they are equally excellent. The artist has chosen two positions, which, combined, form a complete picture of Mr Hastings.
Evening Star, Issue 3758, 10 March 1875

Royal Arcade, Dunedin
The completion of the shops on the newly erected side of Fleet street, or as it is now called "the Royal Arcade," is being rapidly pushed on under the personal supervision of Mr Farley. The total length of the Arcade is 330 feet, and as it is now asphalted from one side to another, a width of 30 feet, and is roofed over, it is in its improved condition a place where one may agreeably go a-shopping, or enjoy a promenade. Altogether, including the buildings at the corners, there are 31 shops in the Arcade.

Midway from each end a three storey erection rises extending over the pathway. This tall building is being fitted up as a photographic gallery for Messrs Clifford and Morris, and as it is roofed with glass and rises above the surrounding buildings its lighting cannot by any circumstance be injured. The shops on the newly built side have each a basement floor for storing and unpacking goods, an accommodation which those occupying them will appreciate, and in the rear of them, there is a passage leading to the street.

Adding to hotels has been for some time the order of the day in Dunedin, and the Arcade corner building, next to the Bull and Mouth, has now been mads part of the latter hotel, and will be used as a bar. It is intended to have a grand opening of "the Royal Arcade" on Monday night next, on which occasion there is to be a promenade concert, the proceeds of which will be for the benefit of the Benevolent Institution.
Otago Daily Times, Issue 4266, 20 October 1875, Page 2

 Farley’s Royal Arcade in the early 1870s, the junction of Maclaggan and Rattray Streets in the foreground - Otago Settlers Museum collection 

Sydney Intercolonial Exhibition.
... Messrs Clifford and Morris have prepared two cases of specimen photographs for the Sydney Exhibition. The photographs consist of 12 cabinet photographs and 24 cartes de visite, and are plainly but neatly mounted. The subjects are very well chosen, and although the number of specimens has been limited to 36, there is no lack of variety, almost every style being represented. Great taste has been shown in the tinting and in the suitability of the backgrounds to the subjects. The snow pictures are a specialty introduced by Messrs Clifford and Morris into New Zealand, and all the photographs have been so artistically produced that it is by no means improbable their merit will be recognised by the judges of the department in which they will be shown.

Otago Witness, Issue 1449, 30 August 1879

The following further Exhibition awards are published: — Second prizes — Chamber of Commerce (Oamaru), for photographs of Oamaru; N. K. Cherrill (Christchurch), Clifford and Morris (Dunedin), and L. J. Taylor (of Motueka, Nelson), for photographs. Third prizes — J. Bragge (of Wellington), W. B. Gibbs (Wellington), and Burton (of Dunedin), for photographs.
Otago Witness, Issue 1527, 12 February 1881

Mr Clifford (of the firm of Clifford and Morris, Royal Arcade, Dunedin) intimates that he is about to establish a branch of his well-known photographic studios in Lawrence. He purposes making a short stay, and should sufficient inducement offer, he will make periodical visits. The reputation Mr Clifford enjoys as a photographic artist is well-known, and is a sufficient guarantee that all work entrusted to him will be executed in a highly-finished style.
Tuapeka Times, Volume XVI, Issue 970, 5 September 1883

Mr Morris, the well-known photographer of George-street, Dunedin, notifies through our advertising columns that he has no connection in any way with Mr Clifford, the photographer, who intends to visit Lawrence at an early date. The firm of Clifford and Morris was dissolved about three years ago— Mr Clifford electing to carry on the business in the Arcade and Mr Morris removing to George-street. In a paragraph which appeared in our Wednesday's issue referring to Mr Clifford's contemplated professional visit to Lawrence, the word "late" (of the late firm of Clifford and Morris) was accidentally omitted.
Tuapeka Times, Volume XVI, Issue 971, 8 September 1883

In 1884 the Oamaru studio completed a photograph which included portraits of the officers of the post and telegraph offices:

We have to thank the Officers of the Oamaru post and telegraph offices for a clearly taken well finished photograph, containing miniature portraits of themselves. The card is prettily embellished with elegant devices in flowers and ferns, and the likenesses are remarkably true to the originals, that of the postmaster, Mr Hutton, very properly occupying the place of honor. Views of the breakwater and of the old post-office, and of the new one now nearly finished, are given in the card, which is therefore a photographic work of interest to more than those who happen to be personally depicted upon it. The artists are Messrs Clifford.

North Otago Times, Volume XXVIII, Issue 3639, 2 May 1884, Page 2

Evening Star, Issue 8968, 29 October 1892

Evening Star, Issue 10248, 25 February 1897 
[this notice continued in the Evening Star until 2 March 1897]

R. Clifford
Portrait Painter, Photographer
7 & 8 Fleet Street, Dunedin 


The Otago School of Photography
Clifford and Clifton
7 & 8 Fleet Street, Dunedin
from 24 January 1870 to 1 April 1870

 Notice of Partnership. I hereby give notice, that I have this day taken into partnership Mr G. F. Clifton in the business hitherto carried on by me at the School of Photography, No, 7 and 8, Fleet street, Dunedin. ROBERT CLIFFORD. 24th January, 1870.

Cartes de Visite. Portraits for the Million. Photographs taken in first-class style, 8s per half-dozen; extra copies, and copies of English and Foreign Theatrical and other Celebrities, Is each. Fcpc by post to any part of the Colonies. CLIFFORD & CLIFTON, School of Photography, No. 7 and 8, Fleet street, Dunedin. N.B.—Specimens on view.

Evening Star, Volume VIII, Issue 2097, 25 January 1870

Dissolution of partnership. This is to certify that the Partnership hitherto existing as Clifford and Clifton, Photographic Artists, Fleet street, Dunedin, has this day been dissolved by mutual consent. (Signed) G. F.Clifton, Robert Clifford. Witness--H. W. Murray.
Evening Star, Volume VIII, Issue 2154, 1 April 1870

Otago Portrait Gallery
 R. Clifford 
Fleet Street, Dunedin




"Miss Ross, the Taieri Fasting Girl"

Robert Clifford by Robert Clifford, Otago Portrait Gallery.

R. Clifford
Fleet Street, Dunedin


R. Clifford
Fleet Street (Arcade), Dunedin

R. Clifford and Co
Fleet Street, Dunedin


Clifford & Morris
Fleet Street, Dunedin, N.Z.

 This advertising carte de visite for Clifford & Morris provided courtesy of 
Smith's Bookshop Tannery Emporium, 3 Garlands Road, Woolston, Christchurch 8023.

John Richard Morris, born circa 1854 Manchester, England, died 29 June 1919 at his residence, George Street, Dunedin aged 65 years, reg. 1919/6776




Clifford & Morris
Fleet Street, Dunedin, N.Z.

Reverse with border






Reverse without border




above - Mr. J. Dennistoun, 
Haldon Station Partner, 1867-1878, Peel Forest 1878-1921.


red boarder

[purchased October 2022]


The following photographs will date to after February 1876 when Clifford and Morris moved to the Royal Arcade.
Clifford Morris and Co.
Royal Arcade, Dunedin
Robert Clifford, John Richard Morris and Charles Spencer

Clifford, Morris and Co.
Fleet Street, Dunedin
Robert Clifford, John Richard Morris and Charles Spencer





The chair and table shown in this studio are not seen in other Clifford, Morris & Co. photographs and this may indicate this is a copy of a photograph made by them by another photographer.


Clifford Morris and Co
Royal Arcade, Dunedin, N.Z.

Robert Clifford, John Richard Morris and Charles Spencer
 to 18 July 1877

Evening Star, Issue 4488, 18 July 1877







Photograph above - Queen Victoria (1819-1901) seated, wearing black with a hood and holding the infant Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine (1863-1950), later Lady Mountbatten.
Copy by Clifford, Morris and Co of a carte-de-visite by George Washington Wilson (1823-93)
This is one of a series of portraits that Wilson was to take of Queen Victoria and her family and were to be his last as informal portraits featuring members of the royal family. They were published by A. Marion Son and Co who purchased the publication rights from Wilson for these portraits in the knowledge that there was high demand for images of royal subjects. On the 21st October 1863, The Queen wrote in her journal that she 'Was photographed on the lower Terrace by Wilson, & then went for a turn in the pony chair.'

Clifford & Morris
Royal Arcade, Dunedin, N.Z.

reverse with boarder

 above - Mrs G. G. Sanders (?)

no reverse boarder

above - R. Johnston - Green Island

reverse with boarder



above - Bella Hislop

above - Mr. Melville Gray
[previously in the collection of James Younger] 

above - Charles White

Clifford & Morris
Royal Arcade, Dunedin, N.Z.
[the word "Artists" has been dropped]



above - John Edmonds

above - Agnes Gourley - Mrs Ross, Dunedin

Clifford & Morris
Royal Arcade and George Street
Dunedin, N.Z.


above - [Miss or Mrs] Frame, Dunedin

Reginald Herbert Webb
[born 1879] 
May 1880

Clifford & Morris
Royal Arcade
Dunedin, N.Z.
[words "Morris" and "& George Street" deleted]
after September 1881




[purchased September 2022]

Clifford & Co
Arcade, Dunedin &
Thames St., Oamaru, N.Z.
  Open in Oamaru in premises previously occupied by Ferrier and Rock on 14 November 1883
succeeded in Oamaru by Joseph Thomson Henry about 1887
previously an assistant with Clifford and Morris, Dunedin

Messrs R. Clifford and Co., of Dunedin, who have gained an extensive reputation as photographers, will open a branch establishment in Oamaru on the 14th inst. in the studio lately occupied by Messrs Ferrier and Rock.
North Otago Times, Volume XXVIII, Issue 3486, 8 November 1883, Page 2

In November 1883 the Oamaru Borough Council declined Clifford's application to erect a two-sided sign-board over his shop in Thames Street.
North Otago Times, Volume XXVIII, Issue 3490, 23 November 1883, Page 2

Oamaru Mail, Volume X, Issue 3816, 13 January 1887


with boarder, rounded edges

no boarder, rounded edges

[purchased October 2022]

[purchased September 2022]

[purchased October 2022]



no boarder, square edges


Clifford & Son
Arcade, Dunedin and Thames Street, Oamaru


Clifford & Son
Arcade, Dunedin


[purchased September 2022]


Elizabeth Dewar refer Te Papa Collection, 
Elizabeth Dewar. From the album: Memorial to England’s Glories, 1875-1880, Dunedin, by Clifford, Morris and Co. Te Papa (O.040751)

John Bevin
1831 - 1892
These photographs of John Bevin taken at separate sittings, probably around 1873-1875, by Clifford, Morris and Co., and reproduced later by Robert Clifford using his then current carte de visite cards. The first photograph uses the Clifford and Morris card with "Morris" deleted, dates from after the end of their partnership in September 1881. The second photograph uses the Clifford and Son card and would date from after March 1888. John Bevin died at his residence, Dowling Street, Dunedin on died 11 May 1892.

John Bevin, one of the Six Hundred in the Charge of the Light Brigade, as a police sergeant, ca. 1873-1875 / photograph by Clifford & Morris, Dunedin
 File number: FL3266031.
 Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales  

Find A Grave
Original source not known

Wise's Directory for 1878-79
Clifford and Morris, Arcade, Dunedin

Wise's Directory for 1883-84
Clifford Robert, Arcade Fleet Street, Dunedin

Wise's Directory for 1885-86
Clifford and Co., Thames Street, Oamaru
Clifford Robert, Arcade, Dunedin

Wise's Directory for 1887-88
Clifford and Co., Thames Street, Oamaru
Clifford Robert, Arcade, Fleet Street, Dunedin

The New Zealand Post Office Directory (Wise's) for 1890-91
Clifford and Co., (Robert), Arcade, Fleet Street, Dunedin
Clifford's Carte de Visite Cards
Robert Clifford is known to have used at least 30 different Carte de Visite cards.

1. This is probably the first type of carte de visite card used by Robert Clifford.

3. the word "Arcade" in brackets

4. same as 3. above except without the word "Arcade"

5. R. Clifford & Co., "& Co" added

6. Clifford Morris & Co.,"Morris" added

7. Clifford and Morris,Welsh arms added. One card dated September 1874

8. same as 7 above, blue card

9. Clifford and Morris, no Welsh arms

10. same as 9. above except with red border on front of card

11. Clifford & Morris, with border, gold lettering

12. same as 11. except with border on front of card


Laurence Eagle Collection