CAMPBELL, Charles




Samuel Hodgkinson by 
Charles Campbell
Invercargill, New Zealand


left - Samuel Hodgkinson aged 25 by an unknown daguerreotypist in 1842, 
right - Samuel Hodgkinson aged 93 by Charles Campbell in 1910.



This photo of Samuel Hodgkinson MRCS was copied from a Daguerreotype when in London in 1842 when 25 years old and a short time before he was appointed Surgeon, Superintendent of the New Zealand Company Emigrant ship Bombay which sailed from London on August 1st 1842 and arrived at Nelson, New Zealand on December 13, 1842


This photo of Dr Samuel Hodgkinson was taken in August 1910 when aged 93 years.



 
Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, Volume I, Issue 41, 17 December 1842
 
 
DR SAMUEL HODGKINSON, M.R.C.S.
(Extract from New Zealand Cyclopaedia, date 1905, page 794.)
Dr Samuel Hodgkinson, M.R.C.S. (L.) sat in the House of Representatives, as member for Riverton, in the Parliament of 1876. He was returned for Wallace at the general election of 1887. Dr Hodgkinson was born in Nottinghamshire in 1817, and studied for the medical profession at London University College, where he gained honorary certificates in anatomy, surgery, and botany, and became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, in 1840. He proceeded to Nelson in 1842 a surgeon superintendent of the New Zealand Company's emigrant ship Bombay, and was afterwards in practice in England. In 1847 he came out to Port Phillip, Melbourne, and four years later crossed over to Canterbury, where he entered into pastoral pursuits. He visited England in 1854, and actively promoted emigration to the colonies. On his return in 1857 he resided in Auckland for two years, when he removed to Southland, and resumed country life. He was elected to the Provincial Council of Southland in 1864, and joined the Provincial Executive in 1865. Dr Hodgkinson has been foremost in all progressive movements, has always advocated a Liberal policy, and in many of his views was often in advance of his time. He has published from time to time a number of useful and able pamphlets on political questions. Dr Hodgkinson is now enjoying a green old age, with a mind still vigorous and clear.
Otago Witness, Issue 2953, 19 October 1910, Supplement
 
 
 




Index - here




All newspaper articles and advertisements are from Papers Past - National Library of New Zealand or 
Trove - National Library of Australia unless otherwise stated.


Photographer's negatives - the most common question I am asked relates to the current location of photographer's negatives - see this post. 

I'm not able to provide any information about photographers other than that on this site.  I'm am also not able to date photographs or assist you in identifying people in photographs you may have.  I am unable to assist in locating the current location of business records of any photographer.

I recommend the Auckland City Library's website for more information about New Zealand photographers -  http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/dbtw-wpd/photographers/basic_search.htm


Links - here



SHAW, George Baird


George Baird Shaw
Dunedin
born 23 March 1812 Dumfries, Scotland
 elder son of James and Isabella Shaw
died 18 September 1883 at his residence 60 Castlereagh Street North, Sydney after a lengthened period of painful suffering.
  buried 20 September 1883, Congregational Cemetery, Necropolis, Sydney
married 17 June 1858 at Crown Street, Surrey Hills, New South Wales, by Rev. James Voller, Martha Amelia Hodgkins of Bristol


 1883 - 60 Louisa Terrace, Castlereagh Street, Sydney


Otago Witness, Issue 28, 29 November 1851



Drawing of Dunedin. — We have much pleasure in noticing a water-colour drawing of the Town of Dunedin by Mr. Shaw. Our readers will see by an advertisement in our columns that it is the artist's intention to have it lithographed if inducement offers. Mr. Shaw deserves to be encouraged in this undertaking; and we would recommend the public to inspect this work of art, which will well repay them for the trouble.
There are many fine views in Otago, particularly at the month of the Taieri River, which Mr. Shaw might be induced to publish if his present undertaking succeeds; and we cannot see a more acceptable gift by a settler to his friends at home than a pictorial representation of his new abode. The present painting is an exact representation of the Town of Dunedin, and deserves to be published on that account alone, as it will have the effect of counteracting the impression made on the minds of our friends at home by the absurd thing we have seen called a "View of the Upper Harbour of Otago," in which is represented a range of snowy mountains on the east side of the harbour, under which the artist should have written, "N.B. — These are meant for clouds." 
This reminds us of a good story of the Tyro, who, having painted a horse, made its tail so long as to be under the necessity, to prevent its being mistaken for an extra leg, to intimate upon the article itself that it was the tail. Such caricatures may be very amusing in Otago, as illustrative of the efforts of an amateur artist, and of his excessive conceit in bringing his works before the world; but it would be far better for the public to pay for a sketch to be done well than accept such caricatures gratis. We do not wish to discourage amateur artists, but we think they might use a little more discretion in the publication of their efforts, as practice may in time partly supply the place of genius.

Otago Witness, Issue 28, 29 November 1851


Otago Witness, Issue 180, 3 February 1855

Otago Witness, Volume 06, Issue 182, 17 February 1855
 
 Otago Witness, Issue 186, 31 March 1855



George Baird Shaw (1812-1883), painter and printmaker, arrived in Australia in 1856. Born in Scotland, Shaw received his first training in art from his father, an amateur painter who later sent George and his brother James to train at the Academy of Fine Arts in Trieste. Back in Scotland, Shaw produced engravings for publications such as Chambers Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen (1835), as well as engraved portraits of Sir Walter Scott and others. In 1850, Shaw emigrated to New Zealand, remaining there six years before coming to Australia. He exhibited with the South Australian Society of Artists in 1857 before moving to Sydney where he completed a series of engravings of portraits of politicians, clergymen and others. Shaw also worked as a watercolourist, specialising in landscapes, and exhibited three landscape works in the Sydney Intercolonial Exhibition of 1870. It is also thought that Shaw trained as a photographer in Edinburgh, although it is still to be established whether he practised photography in Australia. Examples of his portrait engravings are held by the National Library and the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales.
National Portrait Gallery, Canberra, Australia



McGONIGAL, George


George McGonigal 
born 7 August 1885, reg. 1886/11790 
son of John and Mary Louisa McGonigal 
killed in action 7 August 1915, Gallipoli 
Memorial name Chunuk Bair (New Zealand) Memorial, Chunuk Bair Cemetery, Gallipoli, 

Turkey Private George McGonigal, Otago Infantry, killed, was the youngest son of the late Mr J. McGonigal, an old resident of Caversham. He was 28 years of age on the day of his death. He was educated at the Caversham Public School, and afterwards took up photography as his profession. He was 11 years with Messrs Muir and Moodie, photographers, Dunedin, and latterly with Mr C. Armstrong, of George street. He left, with the Fourth Reinforcements.
Otago Witness, Issue 3208, 8 September 1915


George McGonigal - Auckland War Memorial Museum, Online Cenotaph.

WILSON, James



James Wilson
  adjoining the Odd Fellows' Hall
Princes Street, Dunedin

about August 1857 to March 1860, 
succeeded by William Meluish

born circa 1835 - died 19 March 1915 St Clair, Dunedin


Otago Witness, Issue 300, 29 August 1857

Otago Witness, Issue 302, 12 September 1857

 Otago Witness, Issue 309, 31 October 1857

Otago Witness, Issue 347, 24 July 1858

Otago Witness, Issue 458, 8 September 1860

Mr James Wilson, who died at St Clair, Dunedin, on Saturday, aged 80 years, is said to have been the first man to open a photographer’s shop in Dunedin, also the first to run a cab service there. He was best known in both islands as a brewer. He managed the Well Park brewery at the Water of Leith in the early Otago days, and in recent years he was the brewer at the Egmont brewery.
New Zealand Times, Volume XL, Issue 9001, 25 March 1915
Mr James Wilson


The death of Mr James Wilson, at St. Clair, recalls events of early Dunedin. There is a common belief that he built Wellpark Brewery, on the Water of Leith. That is not the ease. The brewery was erected by his brother-in-law, George Duncan and when Mr Duncan left for a trip to England he let it to James Wilson on a partnership arrangement. Mr Wilson was not a brewer by training. It is understood that before he came out from Aberdeen he was employed as a schoolmaster.

In Dunedin he became first known as a photographer, having a business of his own in Princes street. Mr Geo. Duncan at that time owned a livery stable that ran through from High street to Rattray street, on the site now occupied by Butterworth Brothers, and Mr Wilson employed part of his leisure in keeping the books of the stable business for his brother-in-law.

One day Mr Duncan, who had many irons in the fire, suddenly made up his mind to give up the stable, and he transferred it for a nominal consideration to Mr Job Wain and Mr Wilson as partners. As there was money to be made in this concern, Mr Wilson sold his photograph business to Mr E. Melhuish, so as to be able to put in his whole time at the stable.

The partnership ran a profitable course for four years, and, if we are informed aright, it was during that term that Mr Wilson started the regular cab business in this City. Mr Wilson was of an enterprising nature, and after a while he put money into starting a nightsoil depot on the road towards Anderson Bay.

But it is as a brewer that he is chiefly remembered. As above mentioned, he managed the Wellpark Brewery during Mr Duncan's absence. Sam Ledgerwood was in actual charge as the skilled man. When Mr Duncan returned to New Zealand he sold out his interest to Thomas Birch. The firm of Wilson and Birch subsequently underwent another readjustment, Mr Birch dropping out in favor of Mr Maddox, a young man from Home, who after a while sold his partnership and went to Australia, leaving Mr Wilson the sole owner. As their business grew the premises became too small, and the owners closed their malt house at Wellpark, arranging to do their malting in a free store in Rattray street that had been used for the storing of Californian flour and other goods.

That was the beginning of the beginning of the establishment now famous throughout Australasia as Speight's brewery. There is another and a personal connection between the old malthouse and the present brewery for Mr James Speight and Mr C. F. Greenslade started the foundation of their fortunes when they became associated with Duncan and Wilson. That was in 1865 or 1866. In 1870 he was elected to the City Council as a member for Leith Ward, but resigned in August of the same year. After the lapse of years Mr Wilson dropped Wellpark and was for a few months in the employ of Speight and Co. Things had changed and reversed positions. Later on Mr Wilson started a brewery in Invercargill.

After that he settled in New Plymouth as brewer at the Egmont Company's brewery. In course of time he revisited Dunedin to see his relations and search for a recovery of his health, but the illness that had troubled him took a serious turn, and he was not able to set back to the North. For the last 18 months he had to keep to his room, physically helpless for most of the time, but mentally quite bright. He passed away peacefully between 4 and 5 o'clock on Saturday. Mrs Wilson survives her husband, and there are four sons and two daughters living, one of the sons being a doctor, and another (Charles) now making malt in the establishment where his father began as a brewer.
Evening Star, Issue 15757, 22 March 1915

Photographers at Trenton Military Camp



Photographers at Trenton Military Camp
 
Trentham Camp
There is a constructed street in the camp, and within a short space of time buildings will face it to its full length on both sides. It is called MacChrystall’s parade, after the genial captain of that name. During the previous camps photographers were allowed to do business with the men, and in many instances the visitors, after receiving deposits for photographs, never put m an appearance again. In order to prevent the men being swindled in future. Colonel Potter has provided buildings for two recognised photographers, and a proportion of the rent received for the use of the premises is being added to a fund, to provide the men with, dainties when at sea.
New Zealand Times, Volume XXXIX, Issue 8930, 1 January 1915
 
 
MILITARY ITEMS
CAMPS AT TRENTHAM AND ELSEWHERE.
The military authorities, in case any misunderstanding exists, state that in order to guard against the troops in camp at Trentham being exploited by photographers of no stated business address, as was the case when the second reinforcements were in camp, they gave permission for photo studios to be erected on the reserve so that the commandant of the camp could have some jurisdiction over the business. There are other photographers who have also been given permission to ply their calling among the men in camp, and as these are known to be business men of standing in the community, it is not to be inferred that only those who have studios within the camp are of good repute.
New Zealand Times, Volume XL, Issue 8942, 15 January 1915
 
 
Owing to misunderstandings which arise between photographers and their clients at some military camps, the authorities in control of the camp at Trentham are taking the precaution of appointing (by tender) an official photographer. By thus selling the rights, a distinct advantage is given to the successful tenderers, while it also protects the men. On previous occasions peripatetic, photographers whom no one knew would snap a group of the men and then collect deposits on the photographs which were to be sent, but which too often "miscarried" in the post! With a photographer of repute, this is not likely to happen.
North Otago Times, Volume C, Issue 13198, 21 January 1915
 
 
... The business portion of the camp is still expanding, and among the latest shingles to be hung out are those of a couple of photographers and a lawyer...
Dominion, Volume 8, Issue 2411, 17 March 1915
 
 
Three photographers have pitched camp in this new Eldorado, and one can "snapped" in careless camp attitude, or photographed in full war paint, as he desires.
Timaru Herald, Volume CII, Issue 15695, 1 July 1915
 
 
Another task accomplished is the erection of the long row of shops, under one continuous roof, on the northern side of the residential area. In this numerous businesses have been established, including three jewellers' shops, three photographers', and two barbers' shops with eight chairs each.
Evening Post, Volume XC, Issue 48, 25 August 1915
 
 
The Voice of Trade.
It is 8 p.m. and a photographer, sitting among miscellaneous pictures of military health and handsomeness, is weary of his loneliness. Merry music from a hall across the roadway does not stir him from his melancholy reverie. Somehow the world is awry with him this night. Be has a grievance, half humorously, that men are allowed some days' leave to go home before they march to the transports. While away they may be photographed by outsiders, also certain crafty artists in the city offer lures of a free photograph. Further, when recruits come to camp they may not receive uniforms for a fortnight. Later on they may be everlastingly in denims— raiment— as soon as they jump into uniforms they fly off to town. The great problem of the photographer is to catch his bird in uniform, but he mentions sadly that the hours are a hindrance. From reveille till 8.30 a.m. he may open his doors, but who wants to be taken at-that time? During parade hours no business is permissible. During the two or three weeks preceding the departure of transports the little studio is a lively place as the proprietor admits, and one suspects that the profits at other times are good enough.
New Zealand Herald, Volume LII, Issue 16068, 6 November 1915




BICKERTON, William Henry



William Henry Bickerton
born circa 1872 Southampton, England, son of  Alexander William Bickerton (Professor of Chemistry) and Phoebe Edwards
 arrived Lyttelton 20 June 1874 on the steamship "Atrato" from London via Plymouth, Cape Town and Port Chalmers
he probably died about 12 July 1939 in Sydney, NSW (registered 3629/1939 son of Alexander William Bickerton)

He was a uncle to the Christchurch photographer Mervyn Wilson Bickerton 1908-1940

1899 - Analyst
1906 - Stone's Canterbury, Nelson, Marlborough and Westland Directory
Photographers, Bickerton Wm H., New Brighton, Christchurch
1908 - Photographer 
1915 - Photographer Trentham
1934 - Wellington

William Henry Bickerton was an evening student at the Canterbury School of Art receiving second grade passes in 1889 for freehand drawing and model work. His brothers Alexander Augustus Bickerton and Charles Edward Bickerton were also students there at this time [1].

In May 1894 he received the first prize in a photographic competition held by the Photographic Section of the Philosophical Institute for a study of pampas or toi-toi. He was awarded the prize by A. E. Preece [2].

At the June monthly meeting of the Photographic Section of the Philosophical Institute, Bickerton gave a demonstration "of development and toning partially exposed Solio paper," and Preece again awarded him the first prize in a photographic competition for his photograph of a truss of three chrysanthemums [3].

In a photographic exhibition held in September 1894, two of his photographs were commented on:
Mr W. H. Bickerton's "His Only Suit" is full of life. The discontented aspect of the boy who has, like many authors of old times, to wait whilst his only suit is undergoing the process of washing, is admirably brought out, added to which the poses of the actors in the little comedy are natural and effective. "Wellington Harbour, Evening," by the same artist, is a very fine piece of work [4].


Macquarie Island
1895
 



Evening Star, Volume 9610, Issue 9610, 2 February 1895
this notice also appeared in the Otago Daily Times on 4 February 1895.



The ketch "Gratitude" sailed from Bluff on 13 February for Macquarie Island and returned to Bluff on 1 April 1895.

After his visit to Macquarie Island in the ketch "Gratitude" Bickerton exhibited a collection of photographs at the Industrial Exhibition. The Star newspaper reported:


The principal feature of Mr W. H. Bickerton's collection is the highly interesting series of enlargements of pictures taken, by him when on a recent visit to Macquarie Island in the ketch Gratitude. They represent the penguins with which that far-southern isle swarms, and, considering the fact that they were taken under great difficulties, must he regarded as of exceptional merit. Especially noticeable is a panorama, enlarged from four quarter-plates, showing a vast flock of these birds. 

At the Oddfellows' Hall in December the Bickerton brothers entertained; W. H. Bickerton gave an account of his voyage to Macquarie Island, C. E. Bickerton created considerable amusement by blackboard sketching and H. F. Bickerton gave an remarkably clever exhibition with Indian Clubs [6]. An illustrated article on the penguins of Macquarie Island written by Bickerton was published in the Pall Mall Magazine in November 1895:


Literary.—We understand an article on " The Home of the Penguins of the World," from the pen of Mr W. H. Bickerton has been accepted by the Pall Mall Magazine. The article is illustrated with photographs taken by the writer during a stay on Macquarie Island in March, 1895, and deals with the strange habits of the myriads of penguins to be found on this bleak shore. Mr Bickerton is to be congratulated on making his debut in a publication of such high standing [7]. 

The Macquarie Islands.—The November number of the Pall Mall Magazine contains, under the title of " The Home of the Penguins of the World," an illustrated article by Mr W. H. Bickerton, of Christchurch, describing a visit to the Macquarie Islands. The illustrations are admirably executed, and Mr Bickerton's account of the bird life on the islands is most interesting [8]

During the 1900 Jubilee Exhibition Bickerton received silver medals for single figure, group photography and lantern slides[9]. At the 1901 Intercolonial Photographic Exhibition held in Wellington, Bickerton received the first prize for still life photography, a third prize for "animals" and a third prize for lantern slides [10]. His collection of photographs were one of the most noteworthy at an exhibition held at the Suter Art Gallery, Nelson in October 1901:


The Christchurch section is also a large one, and W. H. Bickerton here claims first mention as the largest contributor and also for the best all-round work. "Ancient Ironwork " gained the prize at Wellington in the still-life section, and is a splendid picture. Landscape, seascape, flower studies, etc., have all received attention from Mr Bickerton with admirable result, and the collection is one of the most noteworthy of the exhibition [11].



 Auckland Weekly News - 21 August 1902, page 5
The firing of the royal salute on coronation day in Christchurch, 9 August 1902
Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, AWNS-19020821-5-2 


 
Auckland Weekly News - 21 August 1902, page 5
Coronation day in Christchurch with cars taking part in the procession, 9 August 1902
Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, AWNS-19020821-5-1


 
Auckland Weekly News - 15 March 1917
Group portrait by William Henry Bickerton of non-commissioned officers from Auckland in the 29th Reinforcements. Back: Brown, C R; Macky, J V; Hedley, J W; McMullin, H J; Baigent, J W; Clark, P G; Averill, L C L; Pezaro, M G 2nd row: Ward, R H; Menzies, A G; Connelly, H F; Whitelaw, A C; Poole, S J; McLaren, W W; Dodson, H R; Henry, E S 3rd row: Popham, A C; Voysey, W D; Andrews, T T; Dunning, R J; Pierce, G W; Roberts, J S; Lyall, W C; Stewart, M P; Mackay, D Front: Doughty, A C; Stretton, E C; Rowe, C A; Stephenson, H W
Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, AWNS-19170315-46-7 

 OFFICERS OP THE HOWITZER BATTERY. From left: Lieut. Hulbert, Lieut. Daltry, Lieut. Wilson, R.N.Z.A. (instructor), Captain N. S. Falla, Lieut. Gardner, Lieut. Miles., Sitting: Captain A. C. Stevens, N.Z.S.C. (officer commanding Howitzer Battery).
Otago Witness, Issue 3168, 2 December 1914, Supplement

 OTAGO OFFICERS AT THE REINFORCEMENT CAMP.
From left: Lieut. McKenzie, Major G. Mitchell, Captain Colquhoun, Lieut. Perry, Lieut. Ker. Sitting: Colonel E. R Bowler (7th Southland Mounted Rifles) officer commanding force. (Photo by W. H. Bickerton).
Otago Witness, Issue 3168, 2 December 1914, Supplement





Officers and NCO's of the Fourteenth NZ Engineers with the late Captain Beekman in centre of front row
 Otago Witness, Issue 3252, 12 July 1916, Supplement


A few years later in 1904 an illustrated article by Bickerton was published in the New Zealand Illustrated Magazine: 
One of the chief features of local interest in the April number of the "New Zealand Illustrated Magazine" is a well-illustrated article on wild duck and swan shooting, by Mr W. H. Bickerton, who tells of his experiences in the Lake Coleridge district [12].


At a patriotic concert held at Featherston last evening, in aid of the Wairarapa Fund for New Zealand's Sick and Wounded Soldiers, the magnificent sum of £19,528 was realised, when an enlarged photograph of the Trentham camp was offered at auction amidst great enthusiasm: Messrs. William Barton, William Hume, George Hume, D. H. S Riddiford, J. 0. Bidwill, W. E. Bidwill, George Pain. Mrs. McDougall and Mrs. James Donald, each bid £1000, and several others offered bids of £500 each. The sum of £10.000 was registered in ten minutes. The photograph was finally purchased by Sir Walter Buchanan for £1000, and presented by him to the Featherston Public Library.


The work in connection with the photograph was done by Messrs. Harrington's, N.Z., Ltd., at the firm's works department, Cooper's Buildings, Willis-street. The photo was taken by Mr. Bickerton, photographer, Trentham.

Evening Post, Volume XC, Issue 2, 2 July 1915

A preparation which has for its purpose the killing of weeds, but not of grass, was the subject of a demonstration in the Levin Public Gardens this morning. It is known as Weedex and is prepared from a formula discovered by a well-known analytical chemist, Mr W. H. Bickerton, of Christchurch, after many years of research. Going round two lawn margins with a small sprayer, Mr W. H. Campbell, representative of the proprietary company, saturated some dozens of weeds, principally, lamb’s tongue, daisy and thistle, and within a few minutes of the application they were turning black. Visitors to the Gardens will be able to note the full effect of this treatment, as time goes on. It is claimed that in three weeks from the date of spraying the weeds will have decayed to a pulpy mass, while the grass adjacent to them, which will become discoloured, will recover. The solution is further claimed to be volatile, harmless to clothing and skin, and non-poisonous to the soil and to any stock that feed on pastures where it has been used. Mr Campbell stated that it was effective on young blackberry and gorse and, in the springtime, on ragwort. The method by which it operates is to penetrate the skin of the weed, mingle with the sap, and descend to the root. Testimonials as to its efficacy have been received in respect to public parks and reserves, the Trentham racecourse grounds, Heretaunga golf links, and various bowling greens. Supplies can be obtained locally from the Misses Oak, florists.

Horowhenua Chronicle, 31 August 1932



THE HOME OF THE PENGUINS.
In the Pall Mall Magazine for October Mr W. H. Bickerton gives an account of a visit paid to the Macquarie Island in February, 1895.
It lies considerably to the south of New Zealand, in lat. 55° S., lon. 155° E. It is a vast penguin rookery. Landing is dangerous in almost all weathers. The penguins were there in countless numbers (writes Mr Bickerton); an immense flat, between one and two miles across, was crammed full of them. And then the row they made ! - before arriving at the rookery the noise reminded us of sheep, but when we turned the corner and saw them ahead it was deafening, and we soon found ourselves of necessity shouting at the top of our voices.
Royal penguins (Eudyptes Schlegeli) commence coming to the Macquarie group in January to moult—their breeding season being from September to the beginning of December.
When the penguins first arrive they are so fat that they can hardly walk, and are just able to waddle up to the rookeries. Owing to the birds arriving at different dates the moulting lasts for three months, but the actual time a penguin takes to moult is only three weeks. During the whole of this period the birds do not eat, but gradually absorb all their fat to prevent themselves from starving. The circumference of a penguin before moulting is about three times that of one which has moulted; so striking is this difference that at first we were fully convinced that they were the old and young respectively.
Having got rid of his old coat, a penguin looks very handsome in his new plumage - everything be has on seems to fit so well, and is of such an excellent cut. But he is so thin that it seems as if his breastbone must cut through the skin.
The cunning with which penguins land amid the awful surf is wonderful. They face the wave just before it breaks, and dive underneath, coming up again behind, ready for the next one; by-and-by one comes which seems smaller to them than the previous ones, and then they roll themselves up into a ball, and are swept on to the shore with terrible force. The speed with which they are carried on does not matter in the least to them; and we see them being rolled over and over on the beach, until the wave begins to go back, when they uncurl and waddle up to the dry shingle, shaking themselves to get the water off their feathers. 

Sometime the back-wash is too strong for the birds, and they are carried again into the sea; however, the operation is repeated until finally one sees them safe upon the beach, waiting for their mates to land before starting, off to the rookeries.
All the penguins go about in pairs, and the in-coming birds form a long white line round the beach, marching two by two, until the creek leading to the rookeries is reached. Here, in spite of the millions of little feet which have passed along, the ground becomes too rough and narrow for double marching, and the birds separate, one going a little way ahead, stopping constantly and looking anxiously round to see if the other is following close enough. Wherever the path permits it the pairs rejoin, and walk again side by side.
In the rookery the birds stand upright with their mates, their white breasts often touching, thus helping each other to stand more comfortably. Day by day their feathers become more untidy, and the birds seem to grow bigger and bigger, until those who have moulted look like little children beside the others. Then gradually the feathers fall off, and the bird itself hastens matters with its beak. In the awkward places the mates help each other, and the confidence with which each bird turns to the other when it cannot help itself is very interesting.
If two royal penguins are separated, and carried a little way out of sight, they walk disconsolately about until they see each other again. As soon as they find their mates they rush together, and the intense joy expressed by every movement, as they are hurrying forward, is impossible to describe. There is a humming and flapping of wings as they meet, and a soft "cawing" noise, until at last they sink upon one another's necks and talk love in their peculiar penguin language. These birds seem to be an intensely loving race, although their emotions are somewhat narrow - never extending beyond the " family circle."
The rookeries are on the slopes of the hills, and the top penguins have a very trying time after they have finished moulting; they have to pass right through the rookery to get to the sea, and every bird pecks at them as they pass. Their method of going through is to hold up their heads as high as they can and make a dash for it, resting wherever there is room to stand out of reach of the unfriendly beaks of the other penguins. Sometimes one of a pair arrives at the bottom first; but, instead of rushing off to the water (and they do love the sea) it waits patiently until its mate arrives also; then they waddle off together, both very weak from their long fast, but full of eagerness to get into the water. As they get down near the edge their steps quicken, and they both run in, and stay swimming and diving out among the breakers for some little time. Then they come to land again, and prune their feathers with scrupulous care, shaking and stretching their wings, as if to test whether they are at all stiff, after their long rest.
This first swim is only a "preliminary canter," but now they are really off, and soon two little white dots appearing now and again on the tops of the far-off rollers are all that can be seen of this small couple, so lately nestling at one's feet.
The laying season of the royal penguins begins in September. They have only one egg, and both male and female take turns in hatching and feeding the young one until it can go to sea and fish for itself; this happens when it is about three months old. In hatching, the egg is simply laid on the ground, the parents in turns lying forward upon it; it takes a month for the egg to break.
The climbing power of royal penguins is extraordinary, and with the aid of their sharp curved nails they are able to scale steep clay cliffs 100ft and 200ft high.
March is, perhaps, the most interesting time of the year to study the habits and customs of the king penguins, for at this date we found them in all stages of growth. There were eggs still being hatched, little ones just out of the shell, with nothing on but a coat of black leather-like skin, and a few hairs sprinkled about which couldn't be called down yet. Then there were young ones nearly the size of their parents, looking more like quadrupeds than birds, with a thick coating of brown fluffy stuff similar to opossum fur, which when wet causes the youngsters to look like brown retriever pups, with masses of curly locks clinging to them. Whenever I saw these young ones I felt a desire to take them up and stroke them—they looked so soft and warm.
King penguins, like the royals, have only one egg. They have no nest whatever, and manage the hatching in a most wonderful manner. The egg is placed on the two feet, and then the bird, taking up a stooping position, loosens the skin on the breast. This looseness is utilised to form a sort of pouch, completely covering the egg. By this means the egg never touches the cold stones, and is warmly covered up all round.
The grip which the parents have of the egg is surprising, and although a party of us walked through the rookery and scattered the birds on all sides, they never let their egg go, and none were seen lying on the ground behind. It was truly astonishing to see the ease with which the brooding birds hopped about, always retaining their egg, and in some cases the newly-hatched chick.
In the rookery the birds stand a little apart from one another, and there is just room for the continual going and coming of the parents with food. If one of the hatching birds moves too much and comes near another parent the two fight fiercely until one moves away out of reach. King penguins use their flippers almost entirely for fighting, the beaks playing a very small part in encounters.
There seems to be a natural system for preventing the little ones getting lost in the rookery. As every parent pecks a wandering one directly it comes within range the chicken soon realises that there is only one spot on earth sate for him, and that is with his own mother -so he promptly turns back and is gathered up again into the loving folds of her pouch.
The young bachelor and maiden "kings" (the one and two year old birds) have a splendid time of it, enjoying life to the full. They form a sort of wandering rookery on the beach, and spend their single lives in what we term "a glorious loaf." When they are hungry they go out to sea to fish, and owing to the never-ending appetites of countless penguins they have to go a long distance away.
All penguins have the same ingenious method of tackling the heavy seas which are always to be found on these coasts. They keep looking round, and as the wave is about to break over them they face it and dive under in time to avoid being knocked dizzy by the falling water.
These birds look their best when mating, and put on airs and styles which nothing but a king penguin could carry without looking ridiculous. They swell out their breasts, and wobble about from side to side as they wander around with their "intendeds"; every now and then stopping and looking slyly round to see if their blandishments are having the proper effect.
If a female is especially attractive, and her charms prove sufficient to please another beau in addition to her established lover, fight is started by the outsider calmly walking up to claim possession, entirely ignoring the other male, until he enforces the fact of his presence by his powerful wing strokes. Then the two males set to and fight it out, she remaining an interested and critical spectator until one or the other of the combatants seems to be winning. Then, unable to contain herself any longer, she rushes into the fray, and, siding with the victor, completely outmatches the other. It matters not to her if the loser is her former suitor, as she is only too glad to be consoled by the winning stranger, feeling that she has a better protector in case of need.
The young ones do not seem to be so firm on their feet as the older birds, for when we chased them suddenly they nearly always fell down upon their breasts and used their wings as a sort of oar, with which to propel themselves; in this position they slid along the ground quite quickly, making us run to overtake them.
With the older birds it is comparatively rare to see them in any other position than upright, and even when sleeping they do not lie down.
It was great fun to come up quietly to a sleeping "king" and touch him lightly with one foot; he was sure to fall flat on his back, and stare up at his tormentor in a dazed manner; then, collecting his faculties together, he would scuttle away as quickly as he could, never stopping until a safe distance had been placed between himself and his foe. The birds always seemed to be more scared by this simple trick than by anything else we could do to them.
All day the beach is thronged with penguins walking or standing about in groups, apparently talking. Sometimes two penguins talking together are joined by a third, who gives them the benefit of his experiences and then, when the talk is over, the new-comer walks off again to hear and spread news with other penguins.
Parent penguins can always be distinguished from the others by the fearfully solemn and business-like manner with which they walk along the beach, never stopping or looking round, but going straight ahead. I saw one with his head bent forward and his wings spread out, plauting his feet down in such a determined manner that it struck mc he must really be sorry to have to take them up again to walk. His mind was so full of his duty that the only effect of my standing in his way was to turn him slightly aside, his wings brushing against mc as he passed.
Penguins swim like porpoises, diving a little below the water, and then leaping up into the air to take another dive, and so they progress. As they passed the ship for the first time I thought they were a school of young porpoises, but the captain laughed and pointed to some penguins resting on the waves - not till then did I discover my mistake. Soon the ship was surrounded by the birds, who in their anxiety to fathom the mystery of the strange creature who had invaded their territories, lifted themselves almost out of the water.
Never, while I was on the island with these birds around me, did the time drag heavily away, and I cannot but feel that this was mainly due to the interest (one almost says companionship) of the penguins.
Press, Volume LIV, Issue 9915, 21 December 1897





Alexander William Bickerton father of William Henry Bickerton by Nelson King Cherrill
Cherrill, Nelson King, 1845-1916. Cherrill, Nelson K fl 1878-1890 :Portrait of Alexander William Bickerton. Ref: PA2-0465. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/22692439



Professor Bickerton.
To the Editor of the Press

Sir, - A good many years ago, when Professor Bickerton was with us in the flesh, we were both waiting for a New Brighton car in Cathedral square. Suddenly, in the midst of our conversation, he pointed before him and said: "When l am dead they will put my statue there, and the inscription will be, 'He asked for bread and they give him a stone.' "

- yours, etc.,

Geo. McIntyre

January 29th, 1929.


The family of Alexander William Bickerton and Phoebe Edwards
Alexander William Bickerton born 7 January 1842 Alton, Hampshire, England, the second son of Richard Bickerton, a builder's clerk, and Sophia Eames, arrived Lyttelton, New Zealand 20 June 1874 on the steamship "Atrato" from London via Plymouth, Cape Town and Port Chalmers, he returned to England in 1910, died 21 January 1929 London. The funeral service was held on 25 January 1929 at the Golder's Green Crematorium, London, those present included Mrs Bickerton (widow), Miss Beryl Bickerton (grand-daughter), Mr Herbert I. Bickerton (nephew), Mr H. E. S. Bickerton (nephew) and Colonel Emery (first cousin).  His ashes were returned to New Zealand, and placed in an urn in a cavity in the western wall of Canterbury College Hall and covered with an inscribed brass plate.

He married 1stly 27 September 1866, Bristol, St James, Gloucestershire, Phoebe Edwards, died 22 April 1919 New Zealand, reg. 1919/3078, buried Linwood Cemetery, Christchurch, block 15 plot 188.
He married 2ndly circa 1920, reg. July-Sept 1920, Paddington, London vol. 1a page 168,  Mary Maria Wilkinson of Christchurch, daughter of Henry Wilkinson, born circa 1862, died 16 November 1941 Christchurch aged 78 years, buried Bromley Cemetery, block 15 plot 232 with her sister Laura Wilkinson.



1. Alexander Augustus Bickerton (Government Analyst) born circa 1869 Painswick, Gloucestershire, reg. Dec 1869 Stroud vol. 6a page 295, England, bapt. 14 May 1873 Portswood, Hampshire, England, arrived Lyttelton 20 June 1874 on the steamship "Atrato" from London via Plymouth, Cape Town and Port Chalmers, died 7 August 1941 at his residence 214 Wilsons Road, Opawa, Christchurch, buried Bromley Cemetery, Christchurch, block 17, plot 492, married 1stly 14 December 1899 at the house of Professor Bickerton, New Brighton Road, Wainoni by Rev. Dr Elmslie, reg. 1899/5352 Rosamund Fanny Kennedy (or Rosamond Fannie Kennedy), teacher, born circa 1864 Ireland, died 11 January 1934, reg. 1934/4175, married 2ndly 1 August 1934, reg. 1934/11200, Holy Trinity Church, Avonside by Archdeacon W. J. Hands, Clara Hardcastle she died 22 May 1950 aged 84 years, reg. 1950/22580, buried Bromley Cemetery, Christchurch, block 17, plot 492, no issue found.



2. Lottie Annie Bickerton, (or Annie Lottie Bickerton) born 13 September 1871, Fitzroy House, Bellevue Place, Southampton, Hampshire, England, reg. Dec 1871, Southampton vol. 2c page 9,  bapt. 4 April 1873 Portswood, Hampshire, England, arrived Lyttelton 20 June 1874 on the steamship "Atrato" from London via Plymouth, Cape Town and Port Chalmers,  died 12 February 1956, Saratoga, near Gosford, New South Wales aged 85, buried Point Clare Cemetery, married 1stly 20 February 1894, Christchurch, Harold George McIntyre, born 12 March 1872, reg. 1872/20848, eldest son of Julia Sophia Margaret Smith and George McIntyre (surveyor) of New Brighton, he died 21 May 1896 at Springfield aged 24 years, reg.  1896/5139, she married 2ndly 29 June 1898, St John's Church, Christchurch, reg. 1898/1744, Cecil Danford Greenwood (or Cecil Danforth Greenwood) M.R.C.S., born 15 July 1860 Nelson, son of John Greenwood (dentist) and Isabella Eliza Forsyth Gascoyne or Gascoigne, they divorced in 1909 and remarried 7 September 1922 at All Saints' Church, Brisbane, Australia, reg. B30758. He died 28 February 1940, Marrickville, New South Wales, Australia, buried Church of England Cemetery, Rookwood, NSW 29 February 1940.

issue: 
2a. Daphne McIntyre born 19 October 1895, reg. 1895/12608, married 19 October 1920 at the Russian Consulate, Yokahama, Japan, Michael Shathin, born circa 1887 Mogiliev, Russia. In 1942 he was a citizen of the Philippines and was imprisoned by the Japanese, he died in an airplane crash in Singapore in 1954. 

The marriage of Miss Daphne McIntyre, formerly of Christchurch, to Mr Michael Shathin, of Moscow, took place at the Russian Consulate in Yokahama on October 19. Mr Shathin is connected with "The Japan Advertiser," the largest foreign newspaper published in the Far East, and for the time being they will live in Tokio (sic), Japan.

Sun, Volume VII, Issue 2117, 26 November 1920


3. William Henry Bickerton,  born circa 1872, Southampton, England, bapt. 14 May 1873 Portswood, Hampshire, England, arrived Lyttelton 20 June 1874 on the steamship "Atrato" from London via Plymouth, Cape Town and Port Chalmers, he probably died about 12 July 1939 in Sydney, NSW, reg. 3629/1939.

married 1stly 23 December 1899 at All Saints, Burwood, Christchurch, reg. 1899/4991
Elizabeth Forbes Gardiner, born 25 November 1862, reg. 1862/16302, Nelson, daughter of Joseph Gardiner (farmer) and Elizabeth Jeffrey, witnessed by  Alexander William Bickerton,  Prof. of Chemistry, Wainoni Park and Herbert Frederick Bickerton, teacher, Wainoni Park, died 5 April 1906, Wainoni, Christchurch, reg. 1906/3544.

married 2ndly 28 April 1908 at All Saints, Burwood, reg. 1908/4955, Georgina May Wilson born 16 November 1885, Ashburton reg. 1885/19909, daughter of George William Wilson (builder) and Maria Kate Walker, divorced 1914, (she married 2ndly? 1915, reg. 1915/9882 George Charles Bateman?)

"married" 3rdly Clara Elizabeth Daniel born 28 January 1888, reg. 1888/5559 daughter of Annie Walker (1919 - Mrs A. Daniel of Christchurch) and Mark Daniel (in 1889 he deserted his wife and child), died 21 July 1919 at Wellington,  reg. 1919/10821 aged 32 years. Clara's death notice in the Dominion indicates that she is the wife of William Henry Bickerton, however the death is registered under the name of Daniel which probably indicates they were not married.

Bickerton.- On July 21, 1919, at Wellington, Clara Elizabeth, beloved wife of W. H. Bickerton and daughter of Mrs. A. Daniel, of Christchurch. Dominion, Volume 12, Issue 258, 26 July 1919

married 4thly 1 December 1924, reg. 1924/7575, Lily Elizabeth McGruer

issue:
3a. William Maxwell Bickerton (Max Bickerton) member of the Japanese Communist Party, born 7 February 1901 New Brighton, reg. 1901/2010 (with Elizabeth Forbes Gardiner), died 20 November 1966  Hampstead, London 
https://all-wrongs-reversed.net/2013/03/15/japanese-translator-heroes-max-bickerton/ 

3b. Wainoni Gladys Bickerton (Noni) born 20 January 1909, Wainoni Park, reg. 1909/5559 (with Georgina May Wilson), died about 16 January 2000, reg 2000/1967 (Mrs Jackson)
ashes Woodlawn Memorial Gardens and Christchurch Crematorium, Christchurch

 
William Maxwell Bickerton son of William Henry Bickerton
Fortune, Reo Franklin, 1903-1979: Photographs relating to Reo and Eileen Fortune. Ref: PAColl-8563-11-04. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. /records/23034394

The family arrived NZ on 20 June 1874

4. Edward Charles Bickerton (Artist) born 3 September 1874 St Asaph Street, Christchurch, reg. 1874/50162, bapt. 1 November 1874 St Michael's Church, Christchurch, died 1 August 1920 Invercargill, buried Saint Johns Cemetery, Invercargill, block/plot: General - 23 / 10A, married 1stly 14 June 1904 St John's Church, Christchurch, reg. 1904/1958 Kate Bertha White born 26 December 1878 Wellington, daughter of Frederick John White (chemist) and Susannah Hill, reg. 1879/1377, died 7 October 1912 at Mrs F. White's, Pages Road, Bromley, Christchurch, reg. 1912/8039, married 2ndly 28 August 1914, reg. 1914/2155, Nina Florence Fleming, born 13 May 1895, Pukekohe, Auckland, daughter of Thomas Booth Fleming and Agnes Wilhemina Legge, died circa 1967 (not confirmed) Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

issue: 
4a. Beryl Wainewright Bickerton (or Beryl Wainwright Bickerton), Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects (ARIBA), born 23 April 1905 Wainoni Park, reg. 1905/5663, died circa January 1996 Chilton, Buckinghamshire, England, reg. B16a no. 027, married 1 September 1934 Balham Congregational Church, England, Lionel Fitzgerald Barron B.Sc., born 26 January 1907 Southsea, Hampshire, only son of Florrie Bothwell Barron and the late Rev. David Barron (Baptist Minister), died June 1987 Hillingdon, Greater London, England, vol. 13, page 727.

Mr Charles Bickerton
(Special to "The Press.") Invercargill, August 1.

Mr Charles Bickerton, third son of Professor Bickerton, one time of Canterbury College, died this morning, after a brief illness. Mr Bickerton, who was 44 years of age, was born and educated in Christchurch, and at an early age he attended the Christchurch School of Art. He showed marked ability, and carried off many prizes. His work possessed such individuality that the famous Dutch artist, Van Der Velden, declared on viewing some examples, that Mr Bickerton would be come a great painter. After studying under Velden for a few years, Mr Bickerton went Home, continuing his studies under Sir Hubert von Herkomer, R.A. He then went to Paris, and spent two or three years in the Academy Julien. On returning to New Zealand he found that his health, which had been far from good during his stay overseas, prevented him from living in anything but a bracing climate. A prolonged stay at Queenstown considerably improved his health, and three years ago he opened a studio in Invercargill. Since his return to New Zealand he had been a constant exhibitor at art exhibitions, and his work was always looked on most favourably. 

Press, Volume LVI, Issue 16902, 2 August 1920 

5. Herbert Frederick Bickerton (fireworks manufacturer, gardener, 1902 - painter, 1908 - teacher) born 11 December 1875 at The Poplars, St Asaph Street West, reg. 1876/1613, bapt 19 March 1876 St Michael's Church, Christchurch, died 10 February 1957, Foxton, reg. 1957/22397, married 1stly 10 January 1900 at the residence of the bride's mother Barbadoes Street, Christchurch by the Rev. Dr. Elmslie (registration of this marriage not found), Esther Sarah Anderson youngest daughter of the late John William Anderson and Mary Ann Anderson, Christchurch, born circa 1879 Prebbleton, died 26 February 1905 Wainoni Park aged 25 years reg. 1905/3707, buried Linwood Cemetery block 15 plot 131, married 2ndly 24 April 1908, St John's Church, Christchurch reg. 1908/4928, marriage dissolved 4 December 1941, Alice Maud Wilson daughter of George William Wilson and Maria Kate Walker, born circa 1884 Ashburton, died 20 November 1967, reg. 1967/39327, ashes buried Woodlawn Memorial Gardens and Christchurch Crematorium, Christchurch with Mervyn Wilson Bickerton. 
issue:
5a. Allan Herbert Cecil Bickerton born 22 November 1901 at New Brighton reg. 1902/4352, bapt 23 February 1902 St Michael's Church, Christchurch, died 9 March 1902 Wainoni, buried Linwood Cemetery, block 30, plot 157
5b. Ronald Malcolm Bickerton (tomato grower) born 16 July 1903 Christchurch, reg. 1903/4887, died 1987, reg. 1987/49647, 8 December 1987 Christchurch, married 29 June 1927 Christchurch, reg. 1927/3359 Margaret Irene Mary Brown. In his aunt's will he received in 1950 four paintings of his uncles by Charles Bickerton)
issue:
5ai. Bevan William Bickerton born 21 January 1934 Christchurch, died December 2006 Christchurch, married 1962 Anne Wilson Still
5aii. Ronald Neil Bickerton born 12 February 1928 Christchurch, died circa 31 May 2002 Wellington
5c. Lorna Esther Bickerton born circa 1905, reg. 1905/11737 (Mrs Anderson) (mother of Esther Frances Anderson)
5d. Mervyn Wilson Bickerton (photographer) born 14 October 1908, reg. 1908/24611, died 25 February 1940, married Kathleen Frances Jane O'Brien born 20 August 1907, reg.
1907/22141 daughter of John O'Brien and Frances Jane Cavanagh.
His life is a beautiful memory,
His death is a silent grief;
He sleeps in God’s beautiful garden,
In the sunshine of perfect peace.

6. Richard Thomas Bickerton (pyrotechnist, later an eye specialist) born 13 December 1876 at the Poplars, St Asaph Street West, Christchurch, reg. 1877/2109, died 15 August 1932 Wellington, reg. 1932/8015, married 12 November 1901 St Mark's Church, Opawa, Christchurch, reg. 1901/5968, Maud Gwendolyn Morgan daughter of Emily Susannah Parsons and John Albert Morgan (accountant), born circa 1881 Christchurch, died 1936, reg. 1936/14778. Emily Parsons was the third daughter of Captain John Parsons of the East India Company, who brought out the ship "Lady Nugent" to New Zealand in 1850, having as the only passengers Mr Godley and his secretary. He later became the first harbour master at Lyttelton [13].

issue:
6a. Nancy Bickerton born 4 June 1902, reg. 1902/10739, bapt 13 July 1902 St John's Church, Latimer Square, died 2002, reg. 2002/5080, married 1924, reg. 1924/200 at John's Church, Wellington, Arthur Gapes D.C.M. son of Mrs G. Gapes and the late Mr Gapes of Northland 
6b. Richard Wynne Bickerton born 11 July 1903, reg. 1903/9242, bapt. 6 September 1903 St John's Church, Latimer Square, Christchurch, died 1982 Porirua, Wellington, reg. 1982/50807
6c. Bryan Henry Bickerton born 19 November 1909, reg. 1910/11397 died 1985 Auckland, reg.  1985/37151, married 20 June 1934 St Paul's Pro-Cathedral, Wellington, reg. 1934/4638 Amelia Emily Agnes Walling only daughter of Arthur Walling, Eastbourne
6d. Glen Bickerton born circa 1916, reg. 1916/3615
6e. Lois Bickerton

7. Jessie Bickerton born 25 January 1879, reg. 1879/2371, died 12 February 1879, buried Addington Cemetery plot 743A aged 2 weeks

8. Alice Mabel Bickerton born 11 September 1880 at Antigua Street, Christchurch, reg. 1880/13116, died 27 January 1933 Saratoga, NSW reg. 4247/1933 Gosford, NSW


[1] Press, Volume XLVI, Issue 7248, 7 January 1889
[2] Star, Issue 4946, 9 May 1894
[3] Star, Issue 4975, 13 June 1894
[4] Press, Volume LI, Issue 8900, 17 September 1894
[5] Star, Issue 5371, 24 September 1895
[6] Star, Issue 5442, 18 December 1895
[7] Press, Volume LIII, Issue 9323, 25 January 1896
[8] Press, Volume LIV, Issue 9906, 10 December 1897
[9] Star, Issue 6962, 28 November 1900
[10] Star, Issue 7192, 2 September 1901
[11] Colonist, Volume XLIV, Issue 10231, 15 October 1901, Supplement
[12] Press, Volume LXI, Issue 11882, 2 May 1904
[13]  Press, Volume LXI, Issue 18560, 9 December 1925